Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Satisfied clients

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Normally I don't like to 'toot my own horn', but this one I've got to.  

I just got one of the best ‘thank you’s’ ever from a client. Background:  son (in his late 40’s, no children or wife) died broke with a large amount of debt and no will, leaving only very elderly but spry parents. I decided that they should forego any formal administration as it was only work with absolutely no benefit to them. Also, the apartment where their son was living changed the locks after his death and—working with the apartment’s lawyer—I was able to get my clients back in to retrieve the property and memories he left behind. Their letter:

Mr. Hart:
  
Thank you and your dedicated staff for all you have done for us. Losing our fine son has been very traumatic for us and the legal ramifications were overwhelming to us.

Yet you established a plan that both provided dignity for our son, and isolated us from the harassing phone calls and direct contacts that we could have been subjected to.

Mr. Hart, your legal knowledge, expertise and positive directions assured us that our son’s best interest and ours was always at the forefront of each decision.  . .  .  .  

Our gratitude again for the ‘extra mile’ you went to help us during the ‘lockout’ of [our son’s] apartment.


                                                           Respectfully yours,

                                                          (clients)

             These clients are wonderful to work with and they followed my suggestions. Days like this are why I love my job and career.
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Sunday, June 8, 2014

Virginia's Mean and Callous Joke . . .



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I’m guardian for Sylvester who lives in Assisted Living where he paid ('privately) $2250.00 per month until his saved money ran out; now he pays $1450.00 per month (the owner has a heart of gold, likes Sylvester and agreed to reduce the rate, otherwise he’d be in the street). He thrives there. And at that rate the owner gets a whopping $243.00 more than she would be paid if Sylvester was on the embarrassing disgrace called ‘auxiliary grant’. (see my blog entry on THAT)

Sylvester’s net Social Security income is $18,876.00 per year or $1573.00 per month (after Medicare A, B and D are deducted). So he has $123.00 per month remaining for clothing, diapers, incidentals, Medicare co-pays, my fee for serving as guardian, etc. (I will NOT ‘short’ the assisted living facility as a roof over his head and meals is the most important priority). 

Sylvester has cancer. He presently OWES medical bills of over $4600.00 (that I know of). He needs treatment; the cancer care provider (who has the stupidest billing department I’ve encountered in 20 years of guardianship) is raising hell over its unpaid bill of over $500.00 (and increasing every day); the pharmacy is raising hell over its unpaid bill of over $3500.00 (and increasing every day).  And I have no way to pay any of them.  UPDATE: the day after I posted this I got a letter from the pharmacy that they are discontinuing his meds -- I asked if they (a HUGE national pharmacy) had a charity program and they said NO.

The cancer care provider suggested we apply for Medicaid.  My thought was it’d be easier to move the Rock of Gibraltar to the African continent on the other side of the strait, and I said as much. Nevertheless we (futilely) sent in an application. As I expected it was denied but he was placed on something called “Spend-down”.

If you thought the ‘auxiliary grant’ was a cruel joke, you haven’t seen ‘spend-down’. It is mean and callous.

Our exalted Commonwealth of Virginia’s Medicaid program will pay the difference in
Sylvester’s medical bills OVER $8041.08. After insurance.  Over the six months ending October 31, 2014.

That’s EIGHTY-FIVE (85%) PERCENT OF SYLVESTER’S INCOME. 

NO-ONE can meet a criteria so damned asinine.

I’m pissed off at this. I’m pissed off because the “we don’t like anything Obama does and will stonewall everything related to him” Republicans refuse to expand Medicaid benefits in Virginia. AT NO COST to Virginia for the first 4 years of expansion. That expansion would probably cover Sylvester.

This is unconscionable. It makes me think that the Republicans want poor people to die so they won’t have to pay for their care. It’s the only logical answer – there’s no other way to explain what they’re doing. I don’t even think former Governor and US Senator Harry F. Byrd would stoop this low.

To protect Sylvester, I’m going to have to figure out how to get him into a nursing home where Medicaid WILL pay for his care.  At a cost to Virginia taxpayers of over $12,000.00 per year (based on Virginia’s share of Medicaid spending). The Republicans are penny-wise and pound foolish – and are too senseless to understand it.

And they’ll tell me I’m wrong about them that they really do care.  Really?  Then prove it.  Expand Medicaid. Show the world we’re better than Mississippi.
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Wednesday, April 9, 2014

The inaccessible Roanoke Law Library

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Over 75 years ago the Roanoke Bar Association was formed for the then primary purpose of maintaining a cooperative law library. (Law books are expensive).  In the 1970's the library was given to the City of Roanoke with the understanding it would maintain the library for the benefit of the public and for the lawyers (who represented that same public).  11 years ago Roanoke City cut hours of the Law Library and now the current operating schedule for the Roanoke Law Library is beyond ridiculous.  The hours are generally 8 am to noon all days except one when it is open until, I think, 4 -- this is applicable to lawyers and the general public. 
 
This puts the usefulness of the Law Library on nearly the same level as screen doors on a submarine. A joke.
 
I've toyed with the idea of some action against the city for the reduced hours, but would rather make a few suggestions and comments that may improve the present situation.
 
The heck of it is, Roanoke's not alone.  I just learned that the Alexandria, VA, proposed budget cuts all funding (except what comes from court fees) from its law library.
 
Short of restoring the Roanoke Law Library hours to something resembling common sense, a solution would be to move the Law Library over to the main library so the public at large and their lawyers could have access on a more human schedule. Having the resources available is -- these days -- more important to the public than for lawyers (we've got our computers with Fastcase, Westlaw, Lexis).  That would free up significant room in the courthouse for something else.  (However, if this is adopted I'd urge the continuation of the "Lawyers' Lounge" for a place we could work between appearances, meet clients, take a nap, etc.).  
 
An alternative, which would apply to lawyers only, is to reinstate a version of the 'key club' (a privilege lawyers had for access years ago).  The Courthouse security checkpoint is mere feet from the door to the Law Library.  Have a key with the deputies and a sign-in/out book.  A lawyer needing to go in to the library could do so upon presenting his bar card and signing the book. (a modification of the old magistrate system)  Frankly this could be instituted immediately while the main branch consolidation idea is studied to death in typical Roanoke fashion.
 
For a number of years I was a member and chair of the Roanoke Bar's library committee and worked with the late Clayne Calhoun to make it a premier law library for a community of our size. It is disheartening to see it as a stepchild of the library system and virtually inaccessible to anyone who might want to use its resources.
 
I want to see it fixed.
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Monday, March 31, 2014

Voice to text . . .

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I've installed voice-to-text software -- the one advertised on TV.  I had tried it in the past but computer power and the software both left a lot to be desired. 

Given my new computer (I had an XP machine that is now obsolete, so got a Windows 7 thing) I thought I'd try it again.  It does do a lot better and it is fairly fast.

However, the accuracy rate is still at 95% -- that means one in twenty words is wrong and you have to take the time to correct it.  Given that lawyers use a LOT of words, that's a lot of corrections.

I just looked at something I 'dictated' into the computer.  Visions of instructions for electronic devices from Asia, written by a non-English-as-first-language person came to mind.  I'll have to be careful.
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Monday, January 27, 2014

Home fire safety tip . . .

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(originally posted 1/27/2014)

My wife and I learned something Friday night,  After we went to bed. And were half asleep.

Smoke/Fire alarms 'wear out'. And get noisy when they die. And they like to die in the middle of the night. (one Lowe's consumer review mentioned the "Midnight Fire Alarm Club").

Our house has 'hard-wired' fire/smoke alarms. This means there's a dedicated circuit connecting all the fire alarms in the house, and if one goes off, they ALL go off.  That's a good thing -- if there's a fire downstairs we might not hear the alarm down there; Allyson (whose apartment is downstairs) might not hear a fire alarm going off upstairs.

According to the firemen who 'visited' us Friday, the alarms have a useful life of about 10 years. Ours had a manufacture date-stamp of 2001. And, per the nice firemen, when one 'hard-wired' alarm dies, it sends a signal to all the others and they all shriek. The US Fire Administration (part of FEMA) also says replace after 10 years.

In our case, all EIGHT of the alarms.

And there's no way to shut them off -- no 'breaker' on the electrical box says 'fire alarms' (which is also a good thing because there are dummies who would switch them off) but even if there were one, the battery back up in each would keep it shrieking.

So after 14 1/2 minutes of shrieking (we couldn't find any fire, smoke, gas, etc.) we called the fire department and they kindly responded, getting to our house about 2 minutes after we called.

And 90 seconds after the 15-minute 'automatic reset' in the alarms shut them off.

Saturday I went to Lowes and bought 8 replacement BRK/First Alert (tm) alarms (and there's a 20% discount if you buy 6 or more, so I paid $15 for each $19 alarm); it took only 30 minutes to switch all of them out because they had matching 'plugs' to connect them to the house.  The alarms 'twist' in and out of the retaining/trim ring, while the new alarm had a different ring, all I did was loosen two screws holding it in, jiggled it out and jiggled in the new ring, tightened it, plugged in the new alarm and twisted it into the new ring.  The hardest part was moving the ladder from alarm to alarm.

So, folks, the bottom line is look at your alarms - if they were made before 2004 you need to replace them.  And consider doing it anyhow if they were made in 2005 or before.You'll sleep better (literally and figuratively)
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FOLLOWUP - 4/7/2014. 

Today I got the following email from a friend: 

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Yesterday afternoon while my husband and I were enjoying a quiet and relaxation time, all of a sudden the smoke/fire alarms started sounding off all throughout the house.  We both bounded up and went dashing through the house and I was feeling of walls and sniffing.  We have a nice staircase to the attic and I ran up there and there was nothing anywhere.  Well, of course, what did I think but the conversation that we had about something similar happening to you.  I hardwired alarms have been in service about ten and one-half years.  I went to the electrical box and there was a breaker that said “fire alarms”.  I tripped it off and the alarms were still sounding.  I thought good grief what will we do?   My husband is not the least bit mechanically inclined!  AND then it stopped.  I said to him, this is not the end of it.  He got the step ladder and proceeded to tell me we should replace the batteries.  Hummmmmm….not a fix I thought, but I went along with it.

The long and short of it is that they sounded again, and then again.  I determined that the breaker did turn off the electricity to all of them, but the batteries made them still sound off.  Then we removed the newly inserted fresh batteries.   AND then we had silence, but no protection.   We made a quick trip to Lowe’s and bought the six pack you described.  NOW like I said my husband is not the least bit mechanically inclined and certainly not trained in electric matters.  He wouldn’t touch them and he dared me to.  I googled it and I know that it is matter of turning off the juice and connecting the black wire, the white wire, and the red wire and reattaching them – but I was under orders not to touch them. 

FOR NOW, we have the circuit breaker off and the batteries removed.  I have one sole alarm/carbon monoxide unit in the middle of my one-story house and am praying for nothing to happen until we have someone in the house later this week that I think will replace them for us.

I AM A ROSS HART BELIEVER NOW!  Thank you.

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Friday, January 24, 2014

(another) Stupid Rule

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This is an excerpt from a letter that went to four members of the Virginia General Assembly from my area. The Auxiliary Grant program (which I've commented on before) is a stepchild of "Virginia Hates the Poor and We're Doing it Only Because the Feds Make Us" funding, which means it gets nothing.

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I’m court appointed guardian for an individual in assisted living who receives the cruel joke Virginia calls Auxiliary Grant.  This isn’t about the stupidity of the niggardly funding of Auxiliary Grant although, as you can imagine, I am more than willing to discuss that at another time.  Instead I have another problem related to a quirk in the rules.

Auxiliary Grant (AG) funds are to help with Assisted Living Facilities (ALF) charges. A significant percentage of ALF residents are there because they’re disabled – mentally (including drug/alcohol abuse/addiction) or physically (age or other impediment). Many of them have a guardian/conservator appointed for them.  In short, many if not most of the individuals are unable to handle money.

So imagine my surprise when I learned, recently, that Virginia Department of Social Services, Auxiliary Grant Manual, (Volume II, Part III, Chapter J, page 12) states

AG payments are issued by check directly to the individual unless an authorized payee has been designated. If an authorized payee has been designated, the check shall be issued to the authorized payee. An authorized payee may be the individual's court appointed conservator or guardian or the person with a valid power of attorney with the authority to accept funds on behalf of the individual. It is the individual’s or the individual’s payee’s responsibility to use the money to pay the ALF/AFCH. The check cannot be issued in the name of the facility or home.
While I’ve acted as guardian for many people for many years, this is the first I knew that AG payments could NOT be payable to the ALF.  I find no logic for it.

My specific problem is that “Jane” for whom I act as guardian lives in an ALF. Her income totals 741.00/month (2014) between Social Security and SSI benefits; because she receives SSI she also automatically receives Medicaid and AG.  The Roanoke City DSS (through the Department of Finance) routinely sends AG payments, BUT THEY ARE PAYABLE DIRECTLY TO JANE who has been declared incompetent. Somehow, at the ALF, because the checks were addressed and mailed to her, she got the checks, cashed them and spent the money – she doesn’t know any better – and her rent is unpaid.

Now the ALF is demanding $2420.00 because (a) they didn’t intercept the checks (which they have done in the past) and (b) the checks invited the abuse by how they were written.

I have asked that the legislators from my area contact Commissioner Shultze at Virginia DSS and ask her to fix the abject stupidity of the manual and let AG funds for an ALF be paid to the ALF directly. At least require AG funds be paid to the Guardian/Conservator where one is appointed, although why we would have to ‘launder’ the funds is beyond me. (however if that’s the way it is, I’ll take a 5% fee as fiduciary for doing so!)
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Thursday, September 19, 2013

Embarrassing Disgrace - update

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Sometimes being obstinate pays off.

I just got a call from Catawba -- they found some 'discharge assistance money' and a facility with a good track record working with the patients.  No, it's not assisted living, it's a nursing home with stable and trained staff.  I've had other residents there (and an elderly relative who was there many years ago) and have a lot of respect for the owner and staff.

Unfortunately the underlying problem still exists:  Auxiliary Grant is still a cruel joke.  The result I got is in part because I had the power of a court order granting me authority. Many people don't, and don't know how to argue.
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Friday, August 16, 2013

An embarrassing disgrace

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Embarrassing because I'm a citizen of the Commonwealth of Virginia which perpetuates the disgrace.

A disgrace because of the cruelty Virginia inflicts on its impoverished aged and vulnerable residents.

Everyone is familiar with Nursing Homes - at least the concept of them.  To be in a nursing home you must need assistance and meet the criteria as measured on a "Uniform Assessment Instrument" which you can find here:  www.vda.virginia.gov/pdfdocs/uai.pdf‎.

But there are people who need help but do not meet the criteria for nursing home level of care. There's an intermediate step called Assisted Living  (AL). People who have money can go to a private pay facility and those are very nice.  And expensive (about 60% of the private pay nursing home rate by my observation).

If you don't have money but only 'qualify' for AL?  Well, Virginia says it'll help, and if $1196.00 per month (eff. 7/1/2013) is "help" then, maybe, it does. For 1197 compensation per month (1375/month in planning district 8 -- 'occupied Virginia' next to DC), an AL agrees to house, supervise, feed, entertain, insure, take to doctor appointments, develop a 'plan of care' individualized to each resident and put it in place, have trained and licensed staff (24/7) to do so, and so on.

It cannot be done. Those properties that have almost only "Aux Grant" residents are horrible - not their fault as they can't afford to do any better. The problem is statewide -- see this Daily Press (Hampton VA) article from October 2012, --here--

I am guardian for a number of individuals. About a year or so ago I began refusing to consent to Assisted Living placement if the individual was in a better place.  Two of the people I am now guardian for are at Catawba Hospital - a psychiatric facility owned and operated by Virginia which charges over $1000.00 a day - more if the room is padded. If the people can't afford to pay (the usual course) the state eats it. So the goal is to get them out as soon as possible. And if they have a guardian, the guardian has to consent to placement.  My two people are ready for discharge - to Assisted Living with Auxiliary Grant.  They're in a better place at Catawba than in ANY AL/AG facility, so I'm not consenting.

Yes, I'm costing Virginia $1000 a day (per person!) because the General Assembly is too damned stupid to recognize the need and increase the Auxiliary Grant to a reasonable level. The Auxiliary Grant has not kept up with the costs of care - especially considering that more and more regulations are piled on the AL facility without any funds to pay for it.  According to the Daily Press article linked above, there were 166 patients in Virginia Mental Health Hospitals with this problem as of October, 2012.

I just got off the phone with someone trying to place one of my Catawba patients.  That person is very competent and very good at her job. I told her my position and I don't care who knows it (thus this blog). I told her she's welcome to tell the upper food chain my position and my pleasure at getting back at Virginia for its disgraceful "Aux Grant" program by costing the state many times what they should pay each month by refusing placement. I dare them to call me.  I dare the Governor to call me.

As a guardian I have to advocate for what's best for my wards.  In my opinion the Auxiliary Grant program is the worst for them - it is instead a Cruel Joke (to borrow a phrase from former Gov. Mills Godwin) and won't happen on my watch. The two individuals are safer and better cared for where they are now than in Assisted Living, and unless Virginia comes up with reasonable money for their care, they're gonna stay there.
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Wednesday, June 12, 2013

Lusting . . .

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This story goes back nearly 40 years - when Jimmy Carter was running for President of the US.  (as an aside, in my opinion he was probably one of the most honest modern presidents we've had but also one of the most ineffective).  Jimmy had done a "Playboy" interview which was widely discussed.

"Playboy" magazine actually had good cultural content and for a time the "Playboy Interview" enjoyed a remarkably strong reputation. 

Anyhow, in 1976 I was at a lunch table with a bunch of lawyers, judges, business folks, etc. and Jimmy's interview was the animated topic.  In it Jimmy admitted to having "Lusted in his heart" a few times. Just as we were discussing the "Lust" line, a blonde bombshell walked past our table - red dress (short, of course), cleavage, heels, etc. and the talk died down while male eyes watched the spectacle. 

After a few moments of silence, one of the group drawled, "Speaking of Lust:  put me down for two regular and one un-natural".
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Wednesday, June 5, 2013

Talkative Worms

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Years ago I served as the first citizen member of the Virginia Board of Medicine. (lawyers got citizenship rights that year!) and we had a crazy trying to get his license back.

As part of his "evidence" of what he'd been doing while not practicing his craft he submitted essays (these days they would be blogs) he'd written about various subjects. One of the essays referred to lawyers as "Pedantic Nematodes".

 To the amusement of the rest of the Board and staff, (and going way over the head of the still-unlicensed individual) I immediately put the initials "PN" at the end of my nameplate.
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Thursday, May 2, 2013

Appendicits (2001 replay)

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Twelve years ago I got hit with major appendicitis and had to have it removed.  After it was over, I decided to "sue" the weasly thing, and got my good friend Hoot-N-Owl to represent me.  In going through stuff I found a copy of the complaint and here it is. I've edited it to disguise somewhat the real names of  a bunch of individuals who chipped in to help.  Those that recognize yourselves, thank you again!

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V I R G I N I A:

IN THE MILL MOUNTAIN ZOO FOR THE CITY OF ROANOKE

ROSS C. HART
V.
HIS (former) APPENDIX

BILL OF COMPLAINT

TO THE HONORABLE KANGAROOS OF SAID ZOO:

COMES NOW Ross C. Hart, by Hoot N. Owl, counsel, and represents as follows:

1) On, about, or within nine months of MMDDYY, Ross C. Hart and his appendix were joined together, and remained together in apparently harmonious relationship for over 50 years.
2) During the early years of the relationship Ross C. Hart did the usual thing for his age: attended school, went to the principals' office, annoyed his parents, and so forth. The appendix, as a vestigial organ of undetermined value did nothing to interfere with those functions.
3) During Ross' second decade, as he discovered the fairer half of the species and made crude attempts to impress them, the appendix continued to stand by.
4) The appendix similarly kept to itself during the next three decades not even getting involved at the time Ross' right kidney, in an inexcusable fit of rage, stoned Ross.
5) At no time during this relationship did Ross abuse, coerce, hinder, constrain or interfere with the appendix in any way; in fact Ross went to great effort to ensure that it was well fed and enjoyed various beverages supplied in appropriate (by Ross’ standards) moderation.
6) The foregoing relationship ended abruptly in the City of Salem, Virginia, on the morning of April 18, 2001, when the aforesaid appendix, with malice aforethought, intentionally began interfering with the normal functions of the remaining organs of Ross C. Hart. More specifically, the appendix:
a) Began causing pain around 4:00 AM, but disguised the pain as a pulled muscle
b) Increased the amount of pain such that at 6:30 AM Ross C. Hart was forced to awaken his sleeping wife (the pain of awakening her then being less severe than the pain then being caused by the appendix)
7) The aforesaid wife having excellent medical skills honed as an Emergency Medical Technician, began an examination of Ross C. Hart, which examination, as loving and gentle as it could be, caused increased pain.
8) Said wife then called Dr. K, Ross' primary care physician (being formerly known as "Dr. Quinn") who immediately scheduled an office visit for later that same morning.
9) During said office visit, Medicine Woman performed various tests, some causing additional pain, and announced that a blood test had an extremely high white cell count of 17000, and (realizing Ross hadn't cracked a single joke in over 45 minutes) stated that Ross "had all the 'good' signs of appendicitis" ('good' later changed to 'classic' as there are no 'good' signs of appendicitis)
10) Ross was immediately dispatched to the emergency room, and Dr. K called ahead so that they would be expecting him. Unfortunately, Dr. K called Roanoke Memorial, and his wife thought the doctor had said Lewis Gale.
11) Ross and his wife then arrived at the Lewis Gale ER which was not expecting them, and they looked up with blank stares when the supposed call was referred to.
12) Nevertheless, upon being given a summary of the office visit, the Lewis Gale ER accepted Ross as a patient, made him put on the too small uniform patients are required to endure, and which have too much air hitting the posterior. Ross was then placed in a cold room to wait. And Wait.
13) A surgeon was contacted and a Dr. Al appeared and described himself to be the 'quack on call'.
14) At some time during this, Trigon Blue Cross BS (ever notice the last two initials of Blue Cross is “BS”?) was contacted and did confirm appropriate insurance coverage.
15) Dr. Al and the nice, kind, anesthesiologist (with those drugs, the name is forgotten!) discussed the various ways Ross could die during the "routine" operation, and then obtained his consent for the operation.
16) The next thing Ross remembers is awakening several hours later without the pain experienced earlier in the day, but with other pains and some interesting scars on his belly (interesting only if you're a Steven King fan)
17) Dr. Al later advised that the surgery was laproscopic, in which neat little tubes are inserted through several incisions in the belly, air is pumped into the wall, and the tubes moved to the appendix. The appendix was found to be gangrenous and really nasty, and was therefore removed immediately. Upon closing the various incisions, an incidental repair was made to a hernia in the area of the 'belly button'.
18) During the night after the operation nurses kept entering the room Ross was given to give medicine to help him sleep, to control his pain, and to take temperature and blood pressure every half hour. Therefore Ross did not sleep well that night.
19) At breakfast time Ross was greeted with bullion and a popsicle (isn't ice cream for tonsils?) but fortunately the meals got better as the day progressed.
20) Ross was then discharged from the hospital around noon, April 20, 2001, and after a short rest at home with some abdominal discomfort (similar to doing about 1000 sit-ups at one time), low grade fever, and some pretty good drugs, he returned to his office to continue whatever the hell he does.
WHEREFORE, Ross C. Hart, by counsel, moves that this Court--
A. Condemn the appendix t an eternity in the theological place of eternal punishment with all other bad appendices;
B. Thank all those who helped out, visited, or otherwise expressed their concern, to wit:
1 A& J and then DF for keeping the kids the first day, PQ for picking them up and bringing them to the hospital and A and H for taking time from their spring break to watch them the second day.
2 Donna Jarrells, Ross' legal assistant, who rose to the occasion and made various arrangements to deal with Ross' schedule and generally ran the office more efficiently than if Ross were there.
3 The Rev. T.V. who, being informed of the situation (and having some other folks from the parish in the hospital) gave up a vacation day and showed up at the hospital in his uniform. Also MO, St. Paul's Parish missioner, who visited and called.
4 PQ, again, for jumping in to a rezoning hearing not having done one before, and obtaining a unanimous vote in favor of the rezoning, then visiting to describe how it went.
5 JM for covering those matters on Friday that could not be put off, and in particular for helping Donna deal with the payees.
6 Dr. Al for doing a wonderful job, having an excellent bedside manner and sense of humor, and being able to put the patient at ease and explain things so even a lawyer could understand them.
7 The nurses and staff at Lewis Gale Hospital for their excellent care.
8 The Business Office at Lewis Gale Hospital AND Lewis Gale Clinic for NOT messing up the bill.
9 The kids for behaving incredibly well with those who watched over them during the ordeal.
C. Take such other action as appropriate.

Ross C. Hart
By: Hoot N. Owl, Esquire pq (Mill Mtn Bar # 3)
Third Cage on the Left
Mill Mountain Zoo
Roanoke, Virginia